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Agriculture

Refers to the cultivation of crops, livestock and other forms of food or natural resources for human consumption or use.
Agriculture is the process of growing crops and raising animals for food, clothing and other products. It involves planting seeds, caring for the plants as they grow and harvesting the crops when they are ready. Similarly, it involves raising animals, feeding them and taking care of them until they are ready to be used for food or other purposes.

Climate Change  

Is the gradual and long-term shift in global weather patterns and average temperatures, caused by human activities.
Climate change refers to the long-term changes in the Earth's climate (weather). These changes are largely caused by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes, which increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These gases trap heat from the sun and cause the Earth's temperature to rise, leading to melting glaciers, raising sea levels, heat waves, hurricanes and increased flooding.

Carbon Offsetting

Is the process of offsetting harmful emissions by supporting projects that reduce harmful gases or remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere e.g. planting trees.
Carbon offsetting is a way to balance out the harmful effect of carbon emissions that come from our daily activities such as driving cars, using electricity or flying in planes. It's like a trade-off where you pay to support projects that reduce carbon emissions or remove carbon from the air, such as planting trees or installing renewable energy sources like solar panels. This helps to offset or balance out the carbon emissions that we produce.

Deforestation

The clearing of trees and forests on a large scale, often for commercial or farming purposes.
Deforestation is when a large area of trees and forests are cut down or removed for various reasons. This can include things like agriculture, urbanisation and development. The process of deforestation can have a number of negative impacts on the environment, including soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and climate change.

Ecosystems

An ecosystem is like a big community of living things that work together to survive.
An ecosystem includes plants, animals, even tiny fish and bacteria, as well as the environment they live in. All these living things rely on each other to survive, and they also interact with each other in different ways. For example, some animals eat other animals or plants, while others help to pollinate flowers or break down dead plants and animals. The surrounding environment, like the air, water and soil also plays a big role in the ecosystem and affects how the living things in it can survive and thrive. So, ecosystems are like big complex webs of life that are all connected and constantly changing.

Environmental, Social, Governance (ESG)

Are three key areas used to measure the sustainability and moral impact of a company or business.
ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance. It's a framework that companies can use to evaluate how their practices impact the world around them.

- Environmental factors include things like a company's carbon footprint, energy usage and waste management. By measuring and managing these, companies can identify opportunities to reduce their environmental impact and operate in a more sustainable way.

- Social factors refer to a company's interactions with people, including employees, customers, suppliers, and the communities in which it operates. Companies that prioritise social responsibility seek to create a positive impact on society by promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion, supporting human rights, and giving back to their communities.

- Governance factors relate to how a company is run, including its leadership, decision-making processes, and accountability. Companies that prioritise good governance practices aim to maintain transparency, integrity, and ethical behaviour in all aspects of their operations.

Fugitive emissions  

Are unintentional leaks of harmful gases from equipment or systems that are used in industrial processes.
Fugitive emissions are released into the environment from unintentional leaks from equipment or systems that are used in industrial processes. These emissions can come from a variety of sources, including pipelines, storage tanks, and valves. They can be harmful to the environment and can contribute to pollution, especially if they contain harmful gases or chemicals.

Global warming

Is when the Earth's surface temperature gets hotter over time because of things that people are doing.
Global warming is the increase in the Earth's surface temperature due to human activities that release harmful gases (greenhouse gases emissions) into the atmosphere, like burning fossil fuels (petrol / diesel) to power our cars and using electricity from power plants that burn coal or gas. These activities release gases into the air that trap heat from the sun and cause the Earth's temperature to rise. This can cause a lot of problems, like ocean warming, droughts, melting ice, forest fires and famine.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG)

Are harmful gases that trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to extreme weather events.
Greenhouse gases are gases that are naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. These gases trap heat from the sun and keep our planet warm enough to sustain life. However, human activities like burning fossil fuels and deforestation have increased the levels of these gases in the atmosphere, leading to global warming and climate change.

Net Positive  

The goal of net positive is going beyond just balancing harmful gases we produce, and instead creating positive impacts on people and the planet.
Net positive refers to a situation where a company or individual not only reduces their carbon emissions to zero, but also goes beyond that to actively remove carbon from the atmosphere. In comparison, net zero refers to a situation where the amount of carbon emissions released into the atmosphere is equal to the amount of carbon that is removed or offset.

Net Zero (NZ)

The goal of net zero is about achieving a balance between the amount of harmful gases we produce and the amount we remove from the environment.
Net zero refers to a state where the amount of harmful gases (greenhouse gas emissions) we produce is equal to the amount that we remove from the atmosphere. It means that we are trying to create a balance between the amount of energy we use and the amount of energy we produce without contributing to climate change. The goal of net zero is to limit the negative impact of human activity on the environment, while still maintaining a high standard of living.

Process emissions

Are intentional releases of harmful gases during industrial processes.
Process emissions are generated during the production of goods and services. These emissions can come from a variety of sources, including industrial machinery, vehicles, and energy generation equipment. Process emissions are a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to climate change.

Social Value (SV)

Refers to the positive impact that a business has on people and the planet beyond its financial performance.
Social value is a concept that refers to the positive impact that businesses and organisations can have on society. It involves identifying the ways in which a company's activities can benefit the community and the environment, as well as its stakeholders, including employees, customers, suppliers, and investors.

Social value can take many forms, such as creating jobs, supporting local economies, investing in sustainable practices, and contributing to social causes and charities. It can also involve promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion within the workplace, and supporting the development of skills and education in local communities.

Scope 1 Emissions (S1)

Are harmful emissions that a company produce, such as emissions from company-owned vehicles. Scope 1 is often referred to as Direct emissions.
Scope 1 emissions come from sources that are directly under the company's control. These emissions are typically associated with the burning of fossil fuels for energy, such as burning coal, oil and natural gas for energy production, transportation and heating.

Additionally, scope 1 emissions can come from processes, such as chemical reactions that release greenhouse gases emissions as a by-product - for example industrial cement production releases CO2 during the manufacturing process.

Scope 1 emissions have a significant impact on climate change and global warming. Therefore, businesses must measure, report, and reduce their scope 1 emissions to mitigate their impact on the environment.

Scope 2 Emissions (S2)

Are harmful emissions from energy purchased and consumed by the company. Referred to as In-Direct emissions.
Scope 2 emissions are generated indirectly by a company's activities through the production of purchased electricity, heating, cooling, and steam. These emissions are a result of the energy that is used by a company but generated by a third-party supplier, such as a power plant, and are typically associated with the electricity grid. The company is responsible for these emissions because they are a consequence of their energy consumption. Therefore, companies often measure, report, and reduce their scope 2 emissions as part of their sustainability goals and to manage their environmental impact.

Scope 3 Emissions (S3)

Are harmful emissions that occur outside of a company's own operations, but are related to their business activities - including its suppliers, customers and other stakeholders. Referred to as In-Direct, Upstream, Downstream and Supply Chain emissions.
Scope 3 emissions can include everything from the production of raw materials and transportation of goods to the disposal of products and services at the end of their useful life. These emissions are more difficult to identify and measure than scope 1 and 2 emissions, but they can be significant and account for a large portion of a company's overall carbon footprint. Therefore, many companies are now looking to address scope 3 emissions in their sustainability strategies as they seek to reduce their environmental impact and ensure a more sustainable future.

Sustainability 

The ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It involves taking care of the environment, using resources responsibly, and ensuring social and economic well-being for everyone.

It's like a balance between what we need now and what we'll need in the future. It's recognising that our actions have consequences, and making choices that minimise those negative impacts. Ultimately, sustainability is about creating a world where people, the planet, and the economy can thrive together for generations to come.
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